ESTELLE GRISWOLD The Pill may have been a landmark invention, but it was useless to people who couldn’t access it. In the 1960s, Estelle Griswold, an activist and director of the Planned Parenthood League of Connecticut, defied the law and opened a birth-control clinic with a physician named Lee Buxton. Both were arrested, tried, and found guilty by Connecticut state courts. However, Griswold argued that the state regulation applied in their conviction violated the 14th Amendment, under which states are forbidden to deprive citizens of life, liberty, and property without due process. In 1965, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled in favor of Griswold and Buxton, thus rescinding the government’s authority to control the use of contraceptive methods (by betrothed couples, at least). By Lee Lockwood/Time & Life Pictures/Getty Images.